Monday, 12 September 2016

Collection of References and Links

Rules of Engagement
One of the most delicate matters faced by UNOSOM II and TFR was when to employ weapons against SNA militia or hostile crowds in an urban setting. With a global media watching, and the potential for Aideed gaining a propaganda coup if innocent civilians died, American and UN military forces had to be extremely careful when, where, and against whom to authorize deadly force. In Somalia, Garrison’s men used modified UNOSOM II rules of engagement (ROE), which provided guidance for soldiers in how to act against a potential foe. UN personnel could only apply deadly force to defend themselves or persons under their protection against any real or intended hostile acts. In addition, UNOSOM II members had the authority to employ lethal means if persons attempted to resist or prevent the UN personnel from conducting their duties. Before exercising deadly force, the UN troops had to use verbal warnings. If the warnings did not work, the troops would shoot into the air to ward off any foes. If these acts did not work, then UN peacekeepers could apply deadly force if they felt threatened. 

UNOSOM II leaders provided detailed guidance on a number of issues. Specifically prohibited were acts of reprisal, unnecessary collateral damage, and UN personnel using excessive force to accomplish any mission. UN forces could use “all necessary force: to disarm or demilitarize individuals and groups” if those enemies were attacking or intending harm against UNOSOM II or innocent people. In particular, UN military forces could conduct all reasonable actions to confiscate or demilitarize crew-served weapons, whether the crew appeared to be threatening or ready to use those weapons immediately against the UN. Later, any “organized militias, technical vehicles, and other crew-served weapons” were considered immediate threats and UN personnel could engage those targets without restriction. The UN also classified as a danger any militias in vehicles appearing to advance toward UNOSOM II forces. Again, UN ground or air forces could engage these threats with deadly force. 

TFR further refined the UNOSOM II ROE. Garrison’s soldiers included two major situations in their ROE – one against unarmed mobs and rioters and the other concerning when to apply deadly force. Like the UN, TFR soldiers used a combination of verbal warnings and shots in the air to control and disperse a crowd. The ROE also authorized riot control agents (tear gas) and less-lethal munitions (e.g. plastic pellet grenades) to repel a hostile mob. 

American SOF could use deadly force in four cases. First, Garrison authorized its use against any militiamen threatening or shooting at the TFR. Second, TFR members could shoot at any armed civilian acting with hostile intent. Third, like the UN soldiers, Garrison’s military force could strike without restriction against crew-served weapons. Fourth, TFR could use lethal weapons against any unarmed but hostile crowds when verbal warnings, riot control agents, warnings shots, or less-lethal devices had failed to control the crowd. TFR ROE also emphasized minimizing collateral casualties and property damage, and the rules called on treating any prisoners or detainees “humanely.” With these rules, TFR went into combat in Mogadishu."

Courtesy of Gothic Serpent (Raid) 
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